"I was working with a Crookes tube covered by a shield of black cardboard. A piece of barium platino-cyanide paper lay on the bench there. I had been passing a current through the tube, and I noticed a peculiar black line across the paper. ...
The effect was one which could only be produced in ordinary parlance by the passage of light. No light could come from the tube because the shield which covered it was impervious to any light known even that of the electric arc...
I did not think I investigated...I assumed that the effect must have come from the tube since its character indicated that it could come from nowhere else. It seemed at first a new kind of invisible light. It was clearly something new, something unrecorded... There is much to do, and I am busy, very busy."
Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen, Discoverer of the X-Ray
"In July 1893, I proposed a new treatment for small-pox, which consists in placing the patients in rooms from which the chemical rays of the solar system are excluded by interposing red glass or thick red cloth. The result of this method of treatment is that the vesicles as a rule do not enter upon the stage of suppuration, and that the patients get well with no scars at all, or most with extremely slight scarring...this influence, which is not confined to variola, depends upon a principle which will, perhaps, find its practical application in other exanthematous and cutaneous affections...the so-called chemical rays, placed in the blue and violet, and especially the ultra-violet parts of the spectrum are the most refrangible; the chemical effect is here at the maximum, the heating effect at the minimum. "
Niels Reyn Finsen, Pioneer in Phototherapy
"The Realms Beyond The Senses, The Reality Of The Unseen..."
Dr. Frederick Finch Strong
“ When we look at the world around us, on Nature, we are impressed with its beauty and grandeur. Each thing we perceive, though it may be vanishingly small, is in itself a world, that is, like the whole of the universe, matter and force governed by law,—a world, the contemplation of which fills us with feelings of wonder and irresistibly urges us to ceaseless thought and inquiry. But in all this vast world, of all objects our senses reveal to us, the most marvelous, the most appealing to our imagination, appears no doubt a highly developed organism, a thinking being. If there is anything fitted to make us admire Nature’s handiwork, it is certainly this inconceivable structure, which performs its innumerable motions of obedience to external influence. To understand its workings, to get a deeper insight into this Nature’s masterpiece, has ever been for thinkers a fascinating aim, and after many centuries of arduous research men have arrived at a fair understanding of the functions of its organs and senses...”
Nikola Tesla, On Light And Other High Frequency Phenomena
My interest in rays started in 1995 when I began experimenting with vacuums and Tesla Coils. I noticed a peculiar yellow-green glow in some tubes that captivated my attention. After some years, I learned that this glow was caused by X-Rays. It is now 25 years later. I spent my whole life studying "Rays" of different kinds, from visible light to X-Rays, Ultraviolet rays, Gamma Rays. I had the unique privilege of studying electrical discharges that were unique to my laboratory and few others over time, outside of Kinraide and Tesla. Now in the later part of life I am devoting my time to the ultraviolet spectrum of the farthest reaches. I believe I am pioneering this kind of work with regard to the unique spectrums I am producing, and expect like Schumann, Lyman, Kinraide, Strong, and others - it will probably occupy my life and work until the end. The unknown is a beautiful things to be immersed in... Jeff Behary.
Pressler Geissler Tube Crown, photographed in Prague from the archives of NTM
Effluves, lighting the air by Tesla method. Replicated designed by Jeff Behary. Top, tuning process. Bottom, refined.
Ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet discharges produced by apparatus replicating upper atmospheric lightning.
Photograph by Kelly McJilton, apparatus made by Jeff Behary.
A collection of UV lamps designed and made by Jeff Behary
Home laboratory to study electrical discharges and vacuum discharge phenomena
A collection of books about UV and phototherapy
A series of historical Crookes, Geissler, X-Ray, and Ultraviolet Tubes photographed by Jeff Behary
Edison X-Ray Tube as witnessed in the home of Frank Jones
Elihu Thomson Double Focus X-Ray Tube from Gustav A. Frei Company
Single Wire Tesla Lamp made by Lutz Neumann
Iron Spark Gap replicated by Jeff Behary, Invented by Thomas Burton Kinraide
Ultraviolet effects from Kinraide Spark Lamp 20 feet away
Miniature X-Ray Tube, a gift from Jonathan and Hannah, children of Warren Fischer, the son of H.G. Fischer
French Geissler Tubes from Frank Jones Collection
Single Wire Tesla Lamp
Tesla lamp in operation.
Crookes Electric Radiometer
Crookes Railway Tube
Holden's Condensator Electrode
Crookes Tube with Butterfly
Lamp made by Jeff Behary to demonstrate shooting stars
Lamp made by Jeff Behary to show high vacuum X-Rays
Neon Lamp from Prague from the famous Pilsner Urquell
Demonstration by Jeff Behary showing a punctured lamp can still produce X-Rays when operated from excessive voltages and frequencies.
Replica of Nikola Tesla experiment.
Crookes Maltese Cross Tube
Crookes Phosphorescent Mineral Tube
Crookes Tube with man inside
Replica Sir Humphrey Davy Tube containing a high vacuum and mercury
Ebert High Frequency Lamp
Ultraviolet Hanovia Alpine Sunlamp
Kromayer Water-cooled Ultraviolet Lamp
Geissler Tube showing the persistent glow of nitrogen gas
Swett & Lewis Crookes Tube for Static Machines
Electrodeless Tesla Lamp
Prototype Ultraviolet Lamp with mesh electrodes and uranium oxide glass graded seal
Ultraviolet Lamp with cast electrodes
Ultraviolet Lamp with cast seal electrodes
Prototype Ultraviolet Lamp
Small prototype Ultraviolet Lamp for spot treatment of skin
Prototype Ultraviolet Lamp containing neon gas with cast electrodes
Small Prototype Ultraviolet Lamp for treating surfaces
Prototype Ultraviolet Lamp for treating surfaces
Ornate Ultraviolet Lamp prototype with graded uranium oxide glass seals
Hewitt Ultraviolet Lamp from Burdick Corporation using UVIARC bulb
Small X-Ray tube of German manufacture ca 1896
X-Ray tube showing vacuum too low
X-Ray Tube with low vacuum but still functional
Rare X-Ray tube made of Bohemian crystal glass
Small German X-Ray Tube made by Pressler
Green & Bauer X-Ray tube. Both men died as X-Ray martyrs.
Gundelach X-Ray Tube
Small Pressler X-Ray tube
Early German X-Ray tube
Early German X-Ray tube, perfect vacuum level
Homemade electrodeless bulb by Jeff Behary
Early Geissler Tube with Uranium Oxide glass
Canal Ray / Channel Ray tube of Weinstein (Kanalstrahlen)
Fluoroscope of Jeff Behary's hand using early X-Ray tube
Rare examples of early prototype UV lamps made of quartz glass
Glass vacuum electrodes used to apply high frequency sparks to the body for therapeutic and ultraviolet effects.
Originally developed by Dr. Frederick Finch Strong in 1896
Early vacuum electrodes and glass ozone generator.
A series of lamps based on Tesla's work designed and made by Jeff Behary
Broad-spectrum UV outputs of lamps developed by Jeff Behary for killing bacteria, molds, and viruses.
Early prototype lamp in operation, power consumption 120 watts.
A series of lamps made by Jeff Behary all with only one conducting wire. Based on the work of Nikola Tesla.
A two-wire lamp made by Jeff Behary for the production of blue/violet rays.
A series of experimental lamps made of different glasses.
A series of electrodeless lamps made by Jeff Behary. They are powered wirelessly by a high frequency field.
Based off of the work of Nikola Tesla in the 1890s.
Experimental Electrodeless Lamps made by Jeff Behary from 2012-2014
Experimental Lamp containing colophony rosin made by Jeff Behary.
Experimental Lamp containing sulfur made by Jeff Behary.
Experimental Lamp containing argon and Iodine made by Jeff Behary
Experimental tube made by Jeff Behary containing crushed glass to mimic lightning discharges
Dual spectrum low pressure sodium lamp
Bright lamp made by Jeff Behary containing Calcium Tungstate. Tube is dedicated to the memory of Clarence Dally, the first X-Ray martyr who worked for Thomas Edison.
Ornate Geissler Tube
Beautiful Geissler Tube with Uranium Oxide Glass
Geissler tube with fluorescent oil
Catherine's Wheel Geissler Tube
Jeff Behary, Frank Jones, and John "Grizzy". Endless thanks to both colleagues, as well as Daniel Cuscela, Kelly McJilton, Lutz Neumann, and many others for helping make this quest possible.
And to RGF Environmental Group for keeping the better parts of my collection alive and well and on display.
Dr. Frederick Finch Strong, pioneer in Electrotherapy and phototherapy. His book "High Frequency Currents" inspired me to start a museum.
Strong studying the ultraviolet spectrum of his lamp
Strong killing bacteria with UV
Strong was a pioneer of high frequency coils for therapy and worked with Earle Ovington and Thomas Burton Kinraide.
Strong also invented the vacuum electrode in 1896. The following images are of vacuum electrodes made around the world.
For more information, please visit my museum and archive:
http://www.electrotherapymuseum.com/Museum19001930_Crookes.htm - Electrotherapy Museum - Crookes, Geissler and X-Ray Tubes
http://www.electrotherapymuseum.com/Museum19001930_XRay.htm - Electrotherapy Museum - X-Rays
http://www.electrotherapymuseum.com/MuseumVioletRays.htm - Electrotherapy Museum - Violet Ray Machines
http://www.electrotherapymuseum.com/Museum18001900_CarbonArc.htm - Electrotherapy Museum - Carbon Arc Lamps, Ultraviolet Lamps, and Phototherapy
https://archive.org/details/ffs_20191109 - Dr. Frederick Finch Strong Personal Scrapbook and Archive - 870 pgs
https://archive.org/details/QuestForKinraide5026pgs - In Quest of Kinraide - 5020 pages
https://archive.org/details/VacuumDischargeTubesLowResolution/mode/2up - Electrical Discharges in a vacuum: A selection of Crookes, Geissler, Mercury Vapour, and X-Ray Tubes
https://archive.org/details/UVspectrum - Insights Into The Spectral Outputs of UV Sources Manufactured from 1800-1900s
https://archive.org/details/gasdischargetubespectrums - Visible Spectrums of Gas Discharge Tubes
https://archive.org/details/hanovialamps - Hanovia Lamps, Various Booklets
https://archive.org/details/thequartzlamp - The Quartz Lamp
https://archive.org/details/ozone_schoenbein - Schönbein - On Ozone
https://archive.org/details/sunlamps - Misc. UV booklets
https://archive.org/details/Burdick - Burdick Ultraviolet Booklets
https://archive.org/details/hgfischeruvir/page/n3/mode/2up - Ultraviolet Blueprints from H. G. Fischer Company
https://archive.org/details/ultravioletreference1/page/n22/mode/2up - Ultraviolet References
https://archive.org/details/Heliotherapy/page/n1/mode/2up - Heliotherapy with Quartz Light
https://archive.org/details/technique-handbook-on-quartz-light-therapy/page/n2/mode/2up - Technique Handbook On Quartz Light Therapy
https://archive.org/details/therapeutic-effects-of-ultraviolet/mode/2up - Therapeutic Effects of Ultraviolet Light